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Bed Bug: Get Them Out and Keep Them Out

Bedbugs, or bed bugs, are small insects that prefer to feed on human blood. Bed bugs, though not strictly nocturnal, are mainly active at night and are capable of feeding unnoticed on their hosts. They have however been known by a variety of names including wall louse, mahogany flat, crimson rambler, heavy dragoon, chinches and redcoat. Bed bugs cause a number of health effects such as skin rashes, psychological effects and allergic symptoms.

In the early 1940s bedbugs were largely eradicated as pests in the developed world. However this problem has increased in prevalence since about 1995. Because infestation of human habitats has been on the increase, bed bug bites and related conditions have been on the rise as well. The exact causes of this resurgence remain unclear; it is variously ascribed to greater foreign travel, more frequent exchange of second-hand furnishings among homes, a greater focus on control of other pests resulting in neglect of bed bug countermeasures, and increasing resistance to pesticides. Bed bugs have been known human parasites for thousands of years.

Physical

Adult bedbugs are reddish-brown, flattened, oval and wingless. Bed bugs have microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance. Adults grow to 4-5 mm in length and 1.5-3 mm wide. Newly hatched nymphs are translucent, lighter in color and become browner as they moult and reach maturity. Bed bugs may be mistaken for other insects such as booklice and carpet beetles, or vice-versa.

Habitat

Bed bugs can survive a wide range of temperatures and atmospheric compositions. Below 16.1 °C (61.0 °F), adults enter semi-hibernation and can survive longer. Bed bugs can survive for at least five days at -10 °C (14.0 °F) but will die after 15 minutes of exposure to -32 °C (-26 °F). They show high desiccation tolerance, surviving low humidity and a 35-40 °C range even with loss of one-third of body weight; earlier life stages are more susceptible to drying out than later ones The thermal death point for C. lectularius is high: 45 °C (113 °F), and all stages of life are killed by 7 minutes of exposure to 46 °C (115 °F) Bed bugs apparently cannot survive high concentrations of carbon dioxide for very long; exposure to nearly-pure nitrogen atmospheres, however, appears to have relatively little effect even after 72 hours.

Infestation Cause

Any dwellings can become infested with bed bugs in a variety of ways.

a).Bugs and eggs that “hitchhiked in” on pets, or on clothing and luggage.
b). Infested items (such as furniture or clothing) brought in.
c).Nearby dwellings or infested items, if there are easy routes (through duct work or false ceilings)
d).Wild animals (such as bats or birds
e).People visiting from a source of infestation; bedbugs, like roaches, are transferred by clothing, luggage, or a person’s body.

Feeding habits

Bed bugs are obligatory hematophagous (bloodsucking) insects. Most species feed on humans only when other preys are unavailable. Bed bugs are attracted to their hosts primarily by carbon dioxide, secondarily by warmth, and also by certain chemicals.

After feeding for about five minutes, the bug returns to its hiding place. It takes between five to ten minutes for a bedbug to become completely engorged with blood. “Although bedbugs can live for a year without feeding, they normally try to feed every five to ten days. In cold weather, bedbugs can live for about a year; at temperatures more conducive to activity and feeding, about 5 months.

Health effects and infestations

A number of health effects may occur due to bedbugs including skin rashes, psychological effects and allergic symptoms. Although bed bugs are able to be infected by at least 28 human pathogens, no study has ever found that the insect is able to transmit the pathogen to a human being. Bed bug bites or cimicosis may lead to a range of skin manifestations from no visible effects to prominent blisters.

Detection

Engorged female bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) with eggs, discovered in the screw hole of a wooden bed frame .Bed bugs are elusive and usually nocturnal, which can make them hard to spot. Bed bugs often lodge unnoticed in dark crevices, and eggs can be nestled in fabric seams. Aside from bite symptoms, signs include fecal spots, blood smears on sheets, and moults.

Bed bugs can be found on their own but often congregate once established. They usually remain close to hosts, commonly in or near beds or couches. Nesting locations can vary greatly, however, including luggage, vehicles, furniture and bedside clutter. Bed bugs may also nest near animals that have nested within a dwelling, such as bats, birds, or rodents. The eggs of bed bugs are found in similar places that the bed bugs themselves are found and are attached to surfaces by a sticky substance.

Control

Carbon dioxide snow (“dry ice” snow) is very cold, about -108°F (-78°C). But being cold does not necessarily mean being able to cool. Or, put another way: big temperature difference is not the same as high energy transfer. The snow that is produced by a fire extinguisher, has of course another goal than freezing tiny bugs. It is therefore of a very different quality. Compared to Cryonite snow, the particle size is big, and the particle speed is slow. Regarding killing bugs, it simply cannot get the work done. (We might as well admit here that Cryonite is a lousy fire extinguisher).

The Cryonite effect – the rapid freezing – is dependent on a certain mix of particle sizes and speeds. The cooling occurs in several phases, where each phase has an optimal combination of a particle size and speed, for attaining maximum cooling rate. Having somewhat bigger particles in the mix, makes the particle-stream efficacious also at longer ranges, and in warmer surroundings.>The speed helps the penetration deep into thin cracks and crevices, in buildings as well as in machines, and also hurtles them through long pipes.But the speed is also an integral part of the freezing itself.

For the energy transfer to be efficient, the ice-particles need contact with the target (bug or surface). A high speed makes for a good, contact-making impact on the target.

Metro King Pest Control Inc. is committed to make your dwelling bed bugs free by adopting special CRYONITE technique.

How can we help you?

Contact us at the Metro King Pest Control office nearest to you or submit a business inquiry online.

I was very pleased with the service and thoroughness of the job done by exterminator of Metro King Pest Control. He removed squirrel and mice infestation from my attic professionally. He was very polite and did a great job.

ED.KREMBLEWSKI
Property Manager , Etobicoke Ontario

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